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Posted By admin On 20/11/21
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Driver Verifier monitors Windows kernel-mode drivers and graphics drivers to detect illegal function calls or actions that might corrupt the system. Driver Verifier can subject Windows drivers to a variety of stresses and tests to find improper behavior. You can configure which tests to run, which allows you to put a driver through heavy stress loads or through more streamlined testing. You can also run Driver Verifier on multiple drivers simultaneously, or on one driver at a time.

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Caution

  • Running Driver Verifier could cause the computer to crash.
  • You should only run Driver Verifier on computers that you are using for testing and debugging.
  • You must be in the Administrators group on the computer to use Driver Verifier.
  • Driver Verifier is not included in Windows 10 S, so we recommend testing driver behavior on Windows 10 instead.

Where can I download Driver Verifier?

You don't need to download Driver Verifier, because it is included with most versions of Windows in %WinDir%system32 as Verifier.exe. (Driver Verifier is not included with Windows 10 S.) Driver Verifier is not distributed separately as a download package.

For information about changes in Driver Verifier for Windows 10 and previous versions of Windows, see Driver Verifier: What's New.

When to use Driver Verifier

Run Driver Verifier throughout development and testing of your driver. More specifically, use Driver Verifier for the following purposes:

  • To find problems early in the development cycle, when they are easier and less costly to correct.

  • For troubleshooting and debugging test failures and computer crashes.

  • To monitor behavior when you deploy a driver for testing using the WDK, Visual Studio, and the tests from the Windows Hardware Lab Kit (Windows HLK) or Windows Hardware Certification Kit (for Windows 8.1). For more information about testing drivers, see Testing a Driver.

How to start Driver Verifier

You should only run Driver Verifier on test computers, or on computers that you are testing and debugging. To get the most benefit from Driver Verifier, you should use a kernel debugger and connect to the test computer. For more information about debugging tools, see Debugging Tools for Windows (WinDbg, KD, CDB, NTSD).

  1. Start a Command Prompt window by selecting Run as administrator, and type verifier to open Driver Verifier Manager.

  2. Select Create standard settings (the default task), and select Next.

    You can also choose Create custom settings to select from predefined settings, or to select individual options. For more information, see Driver Verifier options and rule classes and Selecting Driver Verifier Options.

  3. Under Select what drivers to verify, choose one of the selection schemes described in the following table.

    OptionRecommended use
    Automatically select unsigned drivers

    Useful for testing on computers that are running versions of Windows that do not require signed drivers.

    Automatically select drivers built for older versions of Windows

    Useful for testing driver compatibility with newer versions of Windows.

    Automatically select all drivers installed on this computer

    Provides maximum coverage in terms of the number of drivers that are tested on a system. This option is useful for test scenarios where a driver can interact with other devices or drivers on a system.

    This option can also exhaust the resources available for Special Pool and some resource tracking. Testing all drivers can also adversely affect system performance.

    Select driver names from a list

    In most cases, you will want to specify which drivers to test.

    Selecting all drivers in a device stack allows the Enhanced I/O Verification option to track objects and check compliance because an I/O request packet (IRP) is passed between each of the drivers in the stack, which allows for a greater level of detail to be provided when an error is detected.

    Select a single driver if you are running a test scenario that measures system or driver performance metrics, or if you want to allocate the greatest number of resources available for detecting memory corruption or resource tracking issues (such as deadlocks or mutexes). The Special Pool and I/O Verification options are more effective when used on one driver at a time.

  4. If you chose Select driver names from a list, select Next, and then select one or more specific drivers.

  5. Select Finish, and then restart the computer.

Note

You can also run Driver Verifier in a Command Prompt window without starting Driver Verifier Manager. For example, to run Driver Verifier with the standard settings on a driver called myDriver.sys, you would use the following command:

For more information about command line options, see Driver Verifier Command Syntax.

How to control Driver Verifier

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You can use either Driver Verifier Manager or a command line to control Driver Verifier. To start Driver Verifier Manager, see How to start Driver Verifier, earlier in this topic.

For each of the following actions, you can use Driver Verifier Manager or enter a command line.

To stop or reset Driver Verifier

  1. In Driver Verifier Manager, select Delete existing settings, and then select Finish.

    or

    Enter the following command at a command prompt:

  2. Restart the computer.

To view Driver Verifier statistics

  • In Driver Verifier Manager, select Display information about the currently verified drivers, and then select Next. Continuing to select Next displays additional information.

    or

    Enter the following command at a command prompt:

To view Driver Verifier settings

  • In Driver Verifier Manager, select Display existing settings, and then select Next.

    or

    Enter the following command at a command prompt:

How to debug Driver Verifier violations

Drivers

To get the most benefit from Driver Verifier, you should use a kernel debugger and connect it to the test computer. For an overview of debugging tools for Windows, see Debugging Tools for Windows (WinDbg, KD, CDB, NTSD).

If Driver Verifier detects a violation, it generates a bug check to stop the computer. This is to provide you with the most information possible for debugging the issue. When you have a kernel debugger connected to a test computer that is running Driver Verifier, and Driver Verifier detects a violation, Windows breaks into the debugger and displays a brief description of the error.

All violations detected by Driver Verifier result in bug checks. Common bug check codes include the following:

For more information, see Handling a Bug Check When Driver Verifier is Enabled. For tips about debugging Bug Check 0xC4, see Debugging Bug Check 0xC4: DRIVER_VERIFIER_DETECTED_VIOLATION.

When you start a new debugging session, use the debugger extension command, !analyze. In kernel mode, the !analyze command displays information about the most recent bug check. To display additional information, to help identify the faulting driver, add option -v to the command at the kd> prompt:

In addition to !analyze, you can enter the following debugger extensions at the kd> prompt to view information that is specific to Driver Verifier:

  • !verifier dumps captured Driver Verifier statistics. Use !verifier -? to display all of the available options.

  • !deadlock displays information related to locks or objects tracked by Driver Verifier's deadlock detection feature. Use !deadlock -? to display all of the available options.

  • !iovirp [address] displays information related to an IRP tracked by I/O Verifier. For example:

  • !ruleinfo [RuleID] displays information related to the DDI compliance checking rule that was violated. (RuleID is always the first argument to the bug check.) All rule IDs from DDI compliance checking are in the form 0x200nn. For example:

Related topics

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Windows 7 and later implement support for Biometric devices. The Windows Biometric Framework (WBF) is a generic biometric architecture in Windows 7 and later versions of Windows.

WBF includes an IOCTL-based driver interface known as the Windows Biometric Driver Interface (WBDI) as well as a Windows service called the Windows Biometric Framework API (Windows) (WBS). WBS is also referred to as the WinBio service. WBDI drivers respond to requests from the WinBio service. WBF also includes Windows log-in support.

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Overview of the Biometric technology.

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To develop Biometric, you need these headers:

Drivers solmetric license test

For the programming guide, see Biometric.

IOCTLs

TitleDescription
IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_CALIBRATEThe IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_CALIBRATE IOCTL directs the driver to perform any necessary steps to calibrate the device for use.
IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_CAPTURE_DATAThe IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_CAPTURE_DATA IOCTL directs the driver to retrieve the next scan of biometric data. This call should put the device into capture mode.Vendor-supplied WBDI drivers must support IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_CAPTURE_DATA.
IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_GET_ATTRIBUTESThe IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_GET_ATTRIBUTES IOCTL returns a structure that contains a set of attributes for the sensor. Vendor-supplied WBDI drivers must support this IOCTL.
IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_GET_INDICATORThe IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_GET_INDICATOR IOCTL directs the driver to retrieve the status of the indicator light. This IOCTL is optional.
IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_GET_SENSOR_STATUSThe IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_GET_SENSOR_STATUS IOCTL tells the driver to perform any necessary steps to collect the current operating status of the device. Vendor-supplied WBDI drivers must support this IOCTL.
IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_GET_SUPPORTED_ALGORITHMSThe IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_GET_SUPPORTED_ALGORITHMS IOCTL retrieves a list of cryptographic hash algorithms that are supported by the device. This IOCTL is optional.
IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_RESETThe IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_RESET IOCTL resets the device to a known or idle state, according to the current power state. Vendor-supplied WBDI drivers must support this IOCTL.
IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_SET_INDICATORThe IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_SET_INDICATOR IOCTL directs the driver to update the status of the indicator light.
IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_UPDATE_FIRMWAREThe IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_UPDATE_FIRMWARE IOCTL tells the driver to update the firmware for the device with the given firmware image. This IOCTL is optional.

Structures

TitleDescription
WINBIO_BIRThe WINBIO_BIR structure is the root of the BIR (Biometric Information Record). It contains the size and offset of any other data elements in the BIR.
WINBIO_BIR_DATAThe WINBIO_BIR_DATA structure contains the location and size of a block in a BIR. The offset is measured from the beginning of the WINBIO_BIR structure.
WINBIO_BIR_HEADERThe WINBIO_BIR_HEADER structure contains the Common Biometric Exchange File Format (CBEFF) Patron Format A information that describes the rest of the BIR.
WINBIO_BLANK_PAYLOADThe IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_RESET and IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_UPDATE_FIRMWARE IOCTLs return the WINBIO_BLANK_PAYLOAD structure as output.
WINBIO_CALIBRATION_INFOThe IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_CALIBRATE IOCTL returns the WINBIO_CALIBRATION_INFO structure as output.
WINBIO_CAPTURE_DATAThe IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_CAPTURE_DATA IOCTL returns the WINBIO_CAPTURE_DATA structure as output.
WINBIO_CAPTURE_PARAMETERSThe IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_CAPTURE_DATA IOCTL uses the WINBIO_CAPTURE_PARAMETERS structure as input.
WINBIO_DATAThe WINBIO_DATA structure specifies data in IOCTL payloads.
WINBIO_DIAGNOSTICSThe IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_GET_SENSOR_STATUS IOCTL returns the WINBIO_DIAGNOSTICS structure as output.
WINBIO_GET_INDICATORThe WINBIO_GET_INDICATOR structure is the OUT payload for IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_GET_INDICATOR.
WINBIO_REGISTERED_FORMATThe WINBIO_REGISTERED_FORMAT structure specifies a biometric data format.
WINBIO_SENSOR_ATTRIBUTESThe IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_GET_ATTRIBUTES structure returns the WINBIO_SENSOR_ATTRIBUTES structure as output.
WINBIO_SET_INDICATORThe WINBIO_SET_INDICATOR structure is the IN payload for IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_SET_INDICATOR.
WINBIO_SUPPORTED_ALGORITHMSThe WINBIO_SUPPORTED_ALGORITHMS structure is the OUT payload for IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_GET_SUPPORTED_ALGORITHMS.
WINBIO_UPDATE_FIRMWAREThe WINBIO_UPDATE_FIRMWARE structure is the IN payload for IOCTL_BIOMETRIC_UPDATE_FIRMWARE.
WINBIO_VERSIONThe WINBIO_VERSION structure describes major and minor version information for a WBDI driver.